Italian navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano is the first European explorer to visit the Indians of North Carolina. He lands at Cape Fear and the Outer Banks.
de Soto and his expedition visit Indian communities in Western North Carolina on his march north from Florida.
A Spanish expedition led by Juan Pedro visits the Catawba, Wateree, and Saxapahaw tribes of Carolina .
Sir Walter Raleigh’s first expedition visits the Indians of Roanoke Island.
English colony is established at Roanoke Island under direction of Sir Walter Raleigh Colony fails the following year.
John White ‘ s colony is established on Roanoke Island.
Disappearance of John White’s colony is discovered . Henceforth this colony is called the “Lost Colony. ”
The beginning of a steady stream of white settlers moves into Indian lands along the coastal sounds and rivers of North Carolina.
Clarendon County Colony from Barbados is established in Cape Fear region. Several years of Indian-white conflict ends the colony.
German doctor John Lederer visits the tribes of coastal North Carolina .
The first Indian “war” in North Carolina erupts between the Chowan and white settlers in Virginia .
Surveyor John Lawson visits the tribes of eastern North Carolina. He is killed by the Tuscarora in 1711.
Tuscarora War begins.
Tuscarora War ends. The majority of the defeated Tuscarora seek refuge with the Five Nations of the Iroquois in New York State.
First English trader, Eleazar Wiggan, arrives in Cherokee territory.
Peace treaty with remaining North Carolina Tuscarora is signed. Tuscarora, Coree, and Machapunga are placed on reservation established in Hyde County near Lake Mattamuskeet. By 1761, the reservation has ceased to exist.
Cherokee leaders visit London, confer with the king of England and pledge eternal friendship to the British.
Lumbees Henry Berry and James Lowery are granted land on the Lowry Swamp east of the Lumbee River.
Smallpox epidemic decimates Indian population in North Carolina.
Proposal to establish an Indian academy in Sampson County is approved by the colonial governor.
Cherokee cede large tract of land in central and western Kentucky, southwestern Virginia, and parts of north and northwestern Tennessee in the “Henderson Purchase.”
Cherokee side with the British during the American Revolution. The Coharie and Lumbee fight with the Americans.
Cherokee sign the Treaty of Hopewell which delineates the boundaries of Cherokee Territory.
Treaty of Holston is signed by Cherokee. Cherokee are forced by treaty to cede 100 mile tract of land in exchange for goods and annuity of $1,000 per year.
Cherokee National Council is established.
Cherokee establish a law code and the “Light Horse Guards” to maintain law and order.
Cherokee abolish clan revenge as a mechanism for social control.
Cherokee fight on side of Americans to put down Tecumseh’s effort s to drive out whites.
Several Lumbee serve in American forces during the War of 1812.
Cherokee cede land in exchange for land on the Arkansas River and 2,000 Cherokee move West.
Cherokee establish judicial administration and eight districts.
Cherokee National Council approves the Cherokee Syllabary invented by Sequoya between 1809 and 1821.
Cherokee National Supreme Court is established.
New Cherokee capital is established at New Echota .
Cherokee approve a new tribal constitution.
First edition of the Cherokee Phoenix, a newspaper printed in Cherokee and English, is released.
Passage of the Indian Removal Act by the U. S. Congress.
Cherokee Removal Treaty is signed.
Cherokee are removed to Oklahoma on the “Trail of Tears.”
North Carolina General Assembly passes law prohibiting Indians from owning or carrying weapons without first obtaining license.
Catawbas at Cherokee request Bureau of Indian Affairs to appoint an official to organize their removal to the West.
Lumbee Henry Berry Lowry and his tri- racial band wage “war” against the white establishment in Robeson County for injustices to Indians.
New North Carolina Constitution is passed which restores voting rights to Indians.
Indians in Robeson County are recognized as the “Croatan” by the North Carolina Legislation also provides for separate schools for the Croatan.
Normal School for the Indians of Robeson County is established one mile west of Pembroke and is given an appropriation of $500 by the North Carolina General Assembly.
Eastern Band of the Cherokee is incorporated under North Carolina law.
Separate schools for the “Croat an Indians and Creoles of Cumberland County” are mandated by the North Carolina General Assembly.
Coharie hold their first recorded community meeting and elect a tribal chief.
Shiloh Indian School is constructed in Sampson County. Operating funds for the school are secured from a monthly fee charged of each student. School closes in 1938.
North Carolina General Assembly changes name of Croatans to “Indians of Robeson County.”
Croatan Normal School is renamed Indian Normal School of Robeson County.
High Plains Indian School for the Indians of Person County is established. School closes in 1962.
New Bethel Indian School is established for Indians in Sampson County. School closes in 1941.
Indians of Robeson County are renamed “Cherokee Indians of Robeson County” by North Carolina General Assembly.
Indians living in Person County (formerly called “Cubans”) are officially designated as “Indians of Person County” by North Carolina General Assembly.
Cherokee lands are placed in trust status with the federal government.
Wide-Awake School for Waccamaw-Siouan is established in Columbus County. School closes in 1966.
Act to provide for the preservation of Indian antiqu1t~es in North Carolina is passed by the North Carolina General Assembly. Citizens are “urged” to comply. No criminal penalties are set.
North Carolina General Assembly empowers governor to set aside “some day” as “Indian Day.”
First college degree is granted at Indian Normal School of Robeson County.
Name of Indian Normal School of Robeson County is changed by General Assembly to “Pembroke State College for Indians.“
East Carolina Indian School is established in Sampson County to serve Indians in seven surrounding counties. School closes in 1965.
First Indian mayor of Pembroke is elected. Prior to this date, the governor of North Carolina appointed the mayors of Pembroke; all of whom were non-Indians.
Founding of Cherokee Historical Association and first performance of outdoor drama “Unto These Hills.”
Hawkeye Indian School for the Indians living in Hoke County is established. School closes in 1968.
Lumbee (formerly called Cherokee of Robeson .County) are recognized by the State of North Carolina.
Les Maxwell School for the Indians of Cumberland County is established. School closes in 1967.
“Lumbee Bill” is passed by United States Congress. This bill recognizes the Lumbee as an Indian tribe but denies them services from the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).
Haliwa Elementary and Secondary School is established. School closes in 1968.
Lumbee successfully thwart attempt of Ku Klux Klan to establish itself in Robeson County.
Haliwa receive state recognition as an Indian tribe.
Lumbee Regional Development Association (LRDA) is chartered by the State of North Carolina.
Pembroke State College for Indians becomes Pembroke State University and part of the University of North Carolina System .
East Carolina Tuscarora Indian Association is established in Robeson County.
Waccamaw-Siouan Development Association (WSDA) is chartered.
Cherokee Civic Center is completed.
Coharie and Waccamaw-Siouan tribes are recognized by the State of North Carolina.
North Carolina Commission of Indian Affairs is established by the North Carolina General Assembly.
First Indian-owned bank in the United States – Lumbee Bank – is chartered.
Carolina Indian Voice, an Indian-owned newspaper; begins operation in Robeson County.
Cumberland County Association for Indian People (CCAIP) is chartered.
Henry Ward Oxendine, a Lumbee from Robeson County; becomes the first North Carolina-born Indian to serve in the North Carolina House of Representatives.
Haliwa Tribe, Inc., is chartered.
Guilford Native American Association (GNAA) and the Coharie Intra-Tribal Council are chartered.
New multi-million dollar Cherokee High School opens.
Metrolina Native American Association (MNAA) is chartered.
The outdoor drama “Strike At The Wind”, the story of Lumbee Henry Berry Lowry, opens in Robeson County.
“Indian Heritage Week” is proclaimed by Governor James B. Hunt.
Lumbee and Haliwa receive membership in the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI).
The Unmarked Human Burial and Human Skeletal Remains Protection Act” and the “Archaeological Resources Protection Ace’ are unanimously passed by the North Carolina General Assembly. Criminal penalties are set for violations, and involvement of Indian communities is mandated in decisions regarding treatment, analysis, and disposition of Native American remains.