Abraham Freeman Y-DNA Marker

We are a part of the Family Tree DNA – Cape Fear Indians Project that is being led by our cousin Derek Keith (Freeman). The Waccamaw DNA Project began in 2007 and is open to anyone who believes they have genetic ties to, or believes they are a descendant of the Waccamaw Indians, and/or believes they have native american ancestry associated with other tribes (Tuscarora, Nottoway, Saponi, Lumbee, Cheraw, Peedee, Santee, Cherokee etc) that may have genetic cousins to the Waccamaw.

Thru this project, we have had male-to-male Freeman’s test to find our Y-DNA Marker. Those results have come back as an E-M96 (E3B) DNA marker. This is a unique Y-DNA marker and Derek is working closely with the National Geographic Genome Project as they are interested in how our DNA marker appeared here.

We have added some information below on the Y-DNA Haplogroup E.

Y-DNA Haplogroup E “Roots in Africa, Branches Beyond”
All males can trace their Y-DNA lineage back to a theoretical Y-DNA prototype, which originated in Africa and is thought to have migrated out of Africa over 60,000 years ago (60kya). Although the Y-DNA is usually inherited from father to son without any changes, occasionally differences arise via mutations. Since these mutations or variations add up through generations, the more differences that are found when comparing DNA, equals more time elapsed and more genetic distance. Armed with information about the rates, types and number of variations we can create lineage maps or phylogenetic trees and make calculated estimates to trace our roots back to our forebears (e.g. to find the time to most recent common ancestor, TMRCA aka coalescence).

Ancestral Markers
The Y-DNA contains two main types of ancestral markers:
1. SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). SNPs are a change in a single nucleotide in a chromosome and occur infrequently; once they occur they are stable and typically define a whole chromosome and become its signature.
2. STRs (short tandem repeats, aka microsatellites) (see Figure 2). STRs change by the number of repeats and change at a much faster rate than SNPs.

By testing the combination of SNPs and STRs in our Y-DNA, we can gain information on our paternal ancestry, ranging from ancient history (thousands and tens of thousands of years ago) with the much slower mutating SNPs, to recent history (100-1000 years ago) with faster mutating STRs. More simply, SNPs allow us to track ancient or deep ancestry, while STRs allow us to track recent ancestry in the range of immediate family history over several generations and the relatively modern use of surnames.

Y-DNA Haplogroups
Haplogroups are groups or a population derived from a common ancestor. Y-DNA Haplogroups are defined by slowly evolving SNPs, and each SNP identifies a particular paternal haplogroup or branch of the Y-DNA phylogenetic tree. (Note: mtDNA SNPs are used to determine haplogroups for maternal lineages).

By contrast, the faster changing STRs are employed to determine haplotypes for the Y-DNA, where haplotypes are defined as a collection of variations in STR markers observed on the Y-DNA and can be thought of as a signature, one which tracks more recent genetic history. Frequent haplotypes, commonly known as modal haplotypes can often be associated with defined populations and geographical regions, and can be informative or predictive of haplogroups that also show geographical preferences. For example, from your haplotype determined through the Genebase Y-DNA STR Marker Test, you may already have a prediction of deeper genetic origins and a prediction of your Y-DNA haplogroup.

There are 20 major Y-DNA haplogroups (designated by the letters A through T) stemming in a branching fashion from the Y-DNA prototype, aka “Y-DNA Adam” (haplogroup A), which may be seen as the root or trunk of the tree (see Figure 4). Each branch and haplogroup after “Y-DNA Adam” is defined by a novel SNP or genetic change. The Genebase Y-DNA backbone SNP Test Panel is used to determine Y-DNA haplogroups and additional panels are available to further resolve Y-DNA lineage into sub-haplogroups or subclades.

The Haplogroup E story …so far

Early origins
Y-DNA Haplogroup E originated in Africa and is an early branch of the Y-DNA lineage. Only three genetic variations (SNPs) on the Y-DNA of Haplogroup E separate it from the founding Y-DNA Haplogroup A , aka ‘Y-DNA Adam’. Haplogroup E is abundant in all regions in Africa and in some populations it makes up nearly 100% of the Y-DNA. It is a highly diversified haplogroup with many subclades that have unique histories and distributions, including regions outside of Africa in nearby Asia and Europe. Haplogroup E and its subclades encompass episodes from early Stone Age migrations to the spread of Bantu farmers 2,000-4,000 years ago to recent slave-trading in the 19th century that brought men with this haplogroup to the New World.

Haplogroup E is primarily found in Africa, but it also exists in Europe and Asia . Apart from North America, its levels are very low or it is completely absent elsewhere in the world. Its presence in North America is largely due to the slave trade from ~1650-1850AD that brought Africans to America and not due to indigenous or native Americans as they lack this haplogroup.

The Haplogroup E branch of Y chromosomes is identified by the presence of SNPs M40 and M96 (and others; SRY4064, SRY8299, and P29). E1 is the predominant subclade, while E2 is much less frequent. Within E1, E1b1 (defined by SNP P2) is the most abundant and widespread representative, and accounts for most of Haplogroup E worldwide. E1b1 lineages vary in abundance over Africa and three main regions are evident from the distribution peaks of three subclades: E1b1a (SNP M2) in Sub-Saharan Africa, E1b1b1a (SNP M78) in East Africa and E1b1b1b (SNP M81) in Northwest Africa. The difference in geographic location of Haplogroup E subclades also aligns with distinct language groups supporting the idea that there is prevailing father to son transmission of language in Africa. This very general picture has recently yielded to finer views of African lineages and migrations through the definition and study of additional subclades and more remote branches of Haplogroup E. Indeed, this is one most frequently revised Y-DNA haplogroups with several upgrades of its subclade nomenclature. To help avoid confusion with this terminology, we always include the informative or defining SNP with each subclade as these remain constant over revision of subclades names and phylogenetic arrangements.

SNPy trails and the spread of Haplogroup E
The leading hypothesis concerning the birth of Haplogroup E is that it originated in Northeast Africa and is one of the first emigrations of modern humans out of Africa to other parts of the world. However, its shared phylogeny with Haplogroup D, which is not in Africa and found in the Middle East, may indicate that Haplogroup E first appeared in the Middle East and the migration back to Africa is responsible for its prevalence here. The TMRCA for Haplogroup E is 37 ±10kya and its subclades diverged from ~28-2kya. The simplest (or most parsimonious) explanation is that it arose in Northeast Africa and subsequently spread from this location to all parts of Africa, where it is clearly the dominant Y haplogroup. The spread of Haplogroup E was also part of an early colonization of the Middle East and later Europe. As a result, Egypt served many times as a crossroads for the ancestors in Haplogroup E.

Geographical Distribution of the Subclades of Y-DNA Haplogroup E
By looking at the major subclade frequencies, three broad regions of Africa can be defined: Northwest, East and Sub-Saharan Africa. The division can be distinguished by the prevalence of E1b1a (M81) in North, E1b1b (M2, M191) in Sub-Saharan Africa and E1b1b1a (M78) in East Africa. Mali may represent an intermediate between Northwest and Sub-Saharan Africa. Note that even finer resolution is possible when STR information (i.e. haplotype patterns) and more recently identified SNPs are taken into account. There are several strong correlations between geography or linguistic groups and the E subclade distribution patterns. Thus, while Haplogroup E is broadly identified with Africa, informative SNP and subclade identification is beginning to paint a much more defined picture of ancestry and evolution in this continent and beyond.

Detailed Accounts for the Subclades of Y-DNA Haplogroup E
The following section provides information on individual Haplogroup E subclades.

E1a. M132
The E1a subclade (SNP M132) has been scattered over Africa, but usually at low frequencies. Reports suggest that it is highest in Sub-Saharan Africa, though it has been observed in North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Egypt). Its highest level has been reported in Mali (34%) and it has a reported TMRCA of ~14kya.

E1a1. M44
The E1a1 (M44) subclade has been detected in the Fulbe population in Cameroon at 53%. 2-5% levels have been observed in Mali and Sudan, but no other countries or populations have been reported to carry the subclade.

E1b1. P2
The E1b1 (P2) subclade is a large and prevalent branch in Haplogroup E. It most likely originated in East Africa, perhaps 28kya. The P2* paragroup appears to be restricted to East Africa, principally Ethiopia (10-15%). Levels elsewhere are ≤5%. Most studies have addressed the descendent subclades of E1b1 (e.g. E1b1a (M2), E11b1 (M35), etc.).

E1b1a. M2
E1b1a (M2) is prevalent throughout Africa, except in North Africa. It peaks in West Africa and is associated with the spread of agriculture or new farming methods by the Bantu to Sub-Saharan and Equatorial Africa regions, where it especially prevalent. The Bantu migration and dispersal of E1b1a (M2) appears to have reached as far as South Africa. This Bantu-mediated spread is relatively recent, having taken place within the last ~3,000 years, although a TMRCA points to an ancient origin at 19kya.

The observed distribution also suggests that the Bantu (E1b1a/M2) migration did not take go north of Kenya and moved south along the Southeastern (Swahili) Coast of Africa. A barrier of the Cushitic language and culture in Northeast Africa has been proposed to explain the limited introgression of the Bantu E1b1a/M2 subclade in these northern regions. Nevertheless, the spread of the Bantu is fairly extensive and their linguistic family (Niger-Congo) is the most widely dispersed language family in Africa, supporting the Y-chromosome evidence for the spread of the Bantu people through wide portions of Africa and providing a strong example of correlation between language and phylogeny in Africa. On the other hand, the widespread distribution of Bantu and the E1b1a/M2 subclade, is responsible for a reduced geographic structure or the correlation between Y-chromosome phylogeny and a specific geographic location, thus acting to somewhat homogenize the populations.

The E1b1a/M2 subclade in Oman may be due to recent slave trade with Africa, but since M2 is highest in the West (e.g. Senegal) and drops off significantly to the North and East, it has been speculated that these slaves must have come from a fairly far distance in Central or West Africa.

E1b1a/M2 is also the most common Y haplogroup in African Americans (50-75%), a result of slave trade from Sub-Saharan Africa. In South America, the estimates are ~8% for the M2 subclade. Subclades of E1b1a (defined by SNPs U181, M291, U174, U290, U175) have been examined only in African and European American populations, where they are present in the former and absent in the latter. U174 or E1b1a7a is the most prevalent at about 24% of African Americans.

E1b1a1. M58
Defined by the M58 SNP, the E1b1a1 subclade appears to be a minor subclade. It has been found in South Africa, the Rimaibe in Burkina Faso and Bantu (~5%) and the Hutu in Rwanda (10%). A low level, ~1-2%, of this subclade has also been detected in studies of African Americans in the United States.

E1b1a2. M116.2
The E1b1a2 (M116.2) subclade has not been studied extensively. It appears with low frequency in Mali (2.3%).

E1b1a3. M149
The E1b1a3 (M149) subclade has not been studied extensively. It appears with low frequency in South Africa (~2%).

E1b1a4. M154
The E1b1a4 (M154) subclade has been found within Cameroon (9%) and South African (~4%) regions. This distribution likely reflects dispersal by Bantu farmers on the route from Central West Africa to South Africa.

E1b1a5. M155
The E1b1a5 (M155) subclade has not been studied extensively. It appears with low frequency in Mali (2.3%).

E1b1a6. M10
The E1b1a6 subclade defined by SNP M10, is concentrated in Central Africa: Cameroon (7-11%), Central African Republic (25% Lissongo) and Tanzania (2%). It has not been found elsewhere in a limited set of studies.

E1b1a7. M191
The E1b1a7 (M191) subclade is closely associated with the phylogeography of the precursor E1b1a (M2) and the Bantu population that is responsible for its dissemination. It has a frequency peak (15-45%) in a belt through Sub-Saharan and Equatorial Africa. Modest amounts have been detected in the Arabian Peninsula (3-6%). It is also represented by the high frequency of its descendants, e.g. subclade E1b1a7a (U174) in African Americans.

E1b1a7a. U174
E1b1a7a (U174) is the most prevalent subclade in the African Americans, occurring in 24% of African Americans. As of this writing, it has yet to be studied or reported outside of this population.

E1b1a8. U175
The E1b1a8 (U175) subclade is an abundant branch in African American populations. Outside of its descendants, E1b1a8a1 (U290) and E1b1a8a1a (U181), the paragroup E1b1a8 accounts for ~8.5% of African American Y-chromosomes. With these descendants, this branch encompasses >23% of African American Y-chromosomes. It has yet to be studied or reported outside of this population.

E1b1a8a. U209
Currently, no information is available for the distribution and frequency of this haplogroup E subclade, although information on descendants (E1b1a8a1 and E1b1a8a1a) is available.

E1b1a8a1. U290
E1b1a8a1 (U290) is the second most prevalent subclade in the African Americans, occurring in 11% of African Americans. It has yet to be studied or reported outside of this population.

E1b1a8a1a. U181
E1b1a8a1a (U181) is a derivative of the E1b1a8a1 (U290) subclade and is found in 3-4% of African Americans. It has yet to be studied or reported outside of this population.

E1b1a8a2. P59
Currently, no information is available for the distribution and frequency of this haplogroup E subclade.

E1b1a9. P268
Currently, no information is available for the distribution and frequency of this haplogroup E subclade.

E1b1b. M215
Ethiopia and Sudan harbor the highest levels (30-40%) of the E1b1b (M215) subclade. The information on the E1b1b (M215) subclade is generally superseded by the information from the descendant lineages. Based on the profile of its distribution and the degree of STR diversity in this subclade, it is believed to originate in East Africa. The TMRCA estimate is 20-26kya and by 17kya this subclade had migrated to Northeast Africa. It may be that the Nile River Valley acted as a migratory corridor for this subclade and some of its important descendants described below. This also fits with its higher prevalence among Nilo-Saharan language groups versus Afro-Asiatic language groups.

E1b1b1. M35
This subclade is most frequently reported as the paragroup E1b1b1* or M35* to distinguish it from the observations of the descendant subclades (e.g. E1b1b1a, M78 or E1b1b1b, M81 or E1b1b1c, M123). The TMRCA for M35* subclade is estimated at 27-29kya.

The E1b1b1*/M35* subclade can be found in both western and eastern regions of Africa, but clearly has much higher frequency in East Africa (25-50%). This trend is opposite to E1b1a M2 frequency and distribution. The limit of E1b1a/M2 in Northeast Africa was suggested to be result of close knit cultures of Cushitic language groups, which harbor a large fraction of the E1b1b1/M35 lineage, thus giving an explanation for low E1b1a/M2 and high E1b1b1/M35 frequencies in Northeast Africa.

The M35 predecessors, P2 and M215 are also thought to have an East Africa origin based on STR variation. M35* and M78 have been found in Europe and the Middle East and may have participated in the demic diffusion of agriculture during the Neolithic Era. M35* is found in East Africa (e.g. Ethiopia) and is absent in Oman and Egypt, so the M35 descendants in Oman are likely to have more recent origins as evidenced by the presence of the subsequent SNP variations and the E1b1b1/M35 descendant subclades (E1b1b1a, M78 or E1b1b1b, M81 or E1b1b1c, M123). The STR variation in Egypt is greater than Oman, pointing to an older establishment of M35 in Egypt and supporting the notion that the Levantine corridor through Egypt was the route for the spread of M35 lineages in the Middle East. The timing for this migration coincides with the Mesolithic Era. It is found in present day countries of Lebanon (16%), Turkey (11%), Iraq (11%) and surrounding regions.

An interesting note is that the extent of E1b1b1* (M35*) to the South is near the proposed migration of the M2 subclade through Kenya and that Tanzania has a mixed contribution of both the ‘West M2’ and ‘East M35*’ subclades. This mixture has a unique chronology in that the introduction of M2 by the Bantu is a recent admixture episode in comparison to a Stone Age origin for the M35* subclade.

In Europe, the E1b1b1*/M35* subclade is more prevalent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population (20%) than the non-Jewish population (6%), possibly indicating a founding role for the E1b1b1*/M35* subclade for the Ashkenazi Jews in Europe.

Recent studies have identified a new SNP, M293 that account for many of the M35* paragroup. This new subclade, designated E1b1b1f, appears to have a concentration around Tanzania (43%), the country that harbored the highest reported frequency of M35* (37%). The E1b1b1f/M293 subclade has a TMRCA estimated at 10kya and is associated with a more recent migration (~2kya) and spread of pastoralism (livestock herding) southward to South Africa. Along with the E1b1a/M2/Bantu, this provides another instance of demic diffusion of new technologies in Africa.

E1b1b1a. M78
The Northeast Africa-based E1b1b1a subclade is defined by SNP M78. Somalia, Sudan and Egypt are among the present day countries with very high frequencies (60-90%) of the E1b1b1a M78 subclade. The STR data also support its origin in this area with a TMRCA estimated at 14-23 kya. The frequency of this subclade drops dramatically in Sub-Saharan Africa.

The E1b1b1a (M78) subclade of Haplogroup E predominates in Europe wherever Haplogroup E is found. Since this haplogroup is most frequent in East Africa, it is likely connected to Africa via the Middle East and the Levantine corridor through Egypt. The exit from Africa is estimated within the Mesolithic era. The route to Europe continued through Anatolia and used the Balkan Peninsula, e.g. Greece, in the expansion of this subclade to the West. This movement appears to closely parallel (in place and time) those taken by Y-chromosome Haplogroup J. Together, Haplogroup J and E are believed to have spread agricultural practices during the Neolithic Era to Europe from the Near and Middle East.

Given the presence of E1b1b1a/M78 in North Africa, it is likely that the migration north also produced a western trek from Ethiopia or Sudan into this area. There may have also been backflow of this haplogroup into Africa during the Neolithic, again bringing with it new agricultural techniques into Egypt.

Note that M78 SNP is the second highest representative in the Balkans (~23%). There is a moderate geographic structure in that the frequency of E1b1b1a/M78 is higher in the South (Greece, Macedonia, Albania, Serbia) than the North (Croatia, Bosnia). Low to very low frequencies (<5%) are seen in Iran and Pakistan and these tend to the southern regions of these two countries. A moderate frequency (6%) has been detected in the Atlantic island group of the Azores (Portugal).

The M78 subclade has been sub-divided into clusters a, b, g and d by STR haplotype (microsatellite) analyses and these were recently shown to correlate well with new SNPs that also further subdivided and refined M78 subclade. (See the E1b1b1a1 derivatives below). The E1b1b1a* or M78* paragroup, which constitutes roughly 1% of the E1b1b1a M78 lineage, is largely restricted to North Africa and corresponds closely to the b microsatellite cluster that was found here.

E1b1b1a1. V12
E1b1b1a1 (V12) shows the highest frequency in Northeast Africa (e.g. up to 44% in South Egypt and 19% in Sudan). It may have migrated from Egypt in the North, south to Sudan along the Nile River Valley. It is not present at levels >5% elsewhere, except ~6% in Basques from France. TMRCA estimates an origin at 14-15kya.

E1b1b1a1a. M224
The E1b1b1a1a (M224) subclade has not been studied extensively. It has been found in Israel among Yemeni population (5%) and in one individual in West Asia and appears to be a minor subclade.

E1b1b1a1b. V32
The E1b1b1a1b (V32) subclade is a descendant of E1b1b1a1 (V12). E1b1b1a1b/V32 is highest in Somalia (47-75%), Sudan (52%) and Ethiopia (40%). All these chromosomes detected to date fall into the East African M78 g microsatellite cluster, which is associated with Cushitic (Afro-Asiatic) language groups in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya. There is some notion that the Great Rift Valley acted as a barrier to isolate language and genetic groups in this region. This subclade is abundant in Somalia, although the STR diversity is rather low. This data would suggest that the E1b1b1a1b/V32 Somali population was shaped by a founder effect, somewhat recently. The E1b1b1a1b/V32 was not found in Turkish population with M78 g microsatellite cluster, indicating that there is not a perfect correspondence between the M78 g microsatellite cluster and the E1b1b1a1b/V32 subclade. The g cluster is characterized by a short and unique DYS19 allele (11 repeats), a situation in which it acts almost as a unique event polymorphism like a SNP. The estimates for the TMRCA of this subclade are approximately 4-8kya.

E1b1b1a2. V13
E1b1b1a2 (V13) is highest in the Balkan Peninsula (Albania 32%, Greece 18-45%) and diminishes from here northward. It overlaps with the previously identified E1b1b1a M78 a cluster, and makes up the majority of E chromosome types in Europe. This cluster was found primarily in Europe and to a lesser extent the Near East (e.g. 5% Turkey). It is rarely found outside of Europe.

For example, the most prevalent E subclade in Crete was defined as the E1b1b1a M78 a cluster. It is quite likely that Greece was the source of this subclade on Crete and that this subclade is common overall in the Aegean region. The estimates for the TMRCA of this subclade are 9-11kya outside of Europe (i.e. Near East) and 4-5kya in Europe. The expansion time for the E1b1b1a2 (V13) subclade in Greece is estimated around 4-9kya, somewhat preceding the estimate for the origin of this subclade, which is due to the use of different mutation rate models. The estimate for expansion on Crete is 3kya, which coincides with an influx of Mycenaean culture from the Greek mainland during the end of the Bronze Age. The E1b1b1a2 (V13) most closely follows the route proposed for Y-chromosome haplogroup J-M12 that was part of the late Neolithic introduction of farming and agriculture to Europe and the advances of the ensuing Bronze Age.

E1b1b1a2a. V27
The E1b1b1a2a (V27) subclade has not been studied extensively. It has been found in one individual and appears to be a very minor subclade.

E1b1b1a3. V22
E1b1b1a3 (V22) is at its peak frequency in parts of Northeast Africa (e.g. Egypt 4-20%). It has significant frequencies many other locations (Ethiopia 25%, Sudan 23%, Kenya 11%, Morocco7%). Like E1b1b1a1 (V12), this subclade may have migrated south from Egypt to Sudan. It has also been found in Sicily, Turkey, United Arab Emirates and many other locations, making it a fairly far flung subclade. The estimates for the TMRCA of this subclade are 9-11kya.

E1b1b1a3a. M148
The E1b1b1a3a (M148) subclade has not been studied extensively. It has been found in one individual in South Asia and appears to be a very minor subclade.

E1b1b1a3b. V19
The E1b1b1a3b (V19) subclade has not been studied extensively. It has been found in one individual and appears to be a very minor subclade.

E1b1b1a4. V65
E1b1b1a4 (V65) is mainly found in Morocco and Libya, i.e. North Africa. This subclade is made up of the previously identified M78 b microsatellite cluster (and one g-cluster chromosome). It has likely arisen recently (~4kya) in North or Northeast Africa. It is found across the Mediterranean Sea, making it another candidate like the E1b1a/M81 subclade for transit over the Mediterranean Sea into Europe.

E1b1b1b. M81
The E1b1b1b (M81) subclade is prominent among Berber populations (65-80%), many of which are concentrated in Northwest Africa. It is also prominent in Muslim populations, but at a reduced frequency (30-50%). The prominence of M81 in North Africa among Berber groups also links it with the Afro-Asiatic language groups that are generally restricted to North Africa.

The E1b11b1b/M81 subclade has a TMRCA of 4-9kya and expansion around 2kya. It is therefore relatively new or perhaps recently emerged from a bottleneck and is subject to genetic drift (high frequency of genetic signature, low complexity or variation) in its isolation. This latter notion may fit with a model for the geographic isolation in Northwest Africa where the Sahara desert separates this population from the South and the Mediterranean Sea separates it from the North. The origin of this subclades dates to a ‘wet Sahara’ period that followed the end of the Ice Ages, and the expansion of the population dates after this period in the desertification of the Sahara. This could fit a scenario where the M81 subclade population was isolated after its founding and witnessed little gene flow because of the Sahara desert barrier.

A minor amount is found in Iberia and Sicily, which almost surely arrived from Northwest Africa sources. The presence of M81 (and M35 and M78) in the Iberian Peninsula, albeit at much lower frequencies, argues for a limited by tangible connection between North Africa and Iberia. The variation of Y-chromosome haplotypes also supports this claim (as does the presence of European subclades in NW Africa). It should be noted that not all E haplogroup members in Iberia are the E1b1b1b/M81 subclade and that there are a fraction of M78 subclade that likely traveled from mainland Europe. The presence of M78 and M81 SNPs in the Portugal should be linked to their presence in the Azores in the Atlantic Ocean.

E1b1b1b1. M107
The E1b1b1b1 (M107) subclade has been detected at a low level (2-3%) in two countries – Mali and Algeria. It has not been studied extensively.

E1b1b1b2. M183
Currently, no information is available for the distribution and frequency of this Haplogroup E subclade.

E1b1b1b2a. M165
The only reported existence of the E1b1b1b2 subclade – defined by SNP M165 – is in the Middle East (4.4%). It may be a minor subclade, but has not been studied extensively.

E1b1b1c. M123
The E1b1b1c subclade (M123) is found at its highest frequency outside of Africa, in the Middle East (12% Oman), Near East (12%, Turkey) and Europe (13%, Italy), although substantial levels (11%) have been reported for Ethiopia. As E1b1b1c/M123 is found in Turkey (Anatolia), it provides another geographic link and probably migratory route between the Middle East and Europe. In Anatolia, and Europe in general, E1b1b1c/M123 decreases in the northward direction. Based on variation of STR sites, divergence and expansion estimates for the E1b1b1c/M123 subclade are in the Mesolithic Era (~11kya), which predates the Neolithic spread of agriculture from the Mid-East and it could indicate high early diversity in the founding population in Anatolia. Subsequently, this subclade is likely to have participated in the Neolithic diffusion of agriculture to parts of Europe. Interestingly, it is found abundantly in Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews (12%).

E1b1b1c1. M34
The E1b1b1c1 (M34) subclade is found primarily in East Africa and the Middle East. It appears to be the major derivative of the E1b1b1c (M123) subclade described above. The E1b1b1c1/M34 subclade likely arose in the Middle East and back migrated into Africa. In Africa it is highest in Ethiopia (23%).

It was noted at moderate frequencies (5-20%) in Jewish populations (Ashkenazi, Ethiopian, Libyan and Yemeni) in Israel, providing additional evidence for a link between the Middle East and North Africa. The E1b1b1c1/M34 subclade is also present in Anatolia, Iberia, Sardinia and Crete (frequencies hovering at 5%).

E1b1b1c1a. M84
Currently, no information is available for the distribution and frequency of this haplogroup E subclade.

E1b1b1c1b. M290
The only recorded occurrence of the E1b1b1c1b (M290) subclade is in a Palestinian population (5%). This subclade has not been studied extensively.

E1b1b1d. M281
To date, the E1b1b1d (M281) subclade has only been observed in Ethiopia at a minor frequency (3%).

E1b1b1e. V6
his somewhat rare haplogroup, E1b1b1e (V6), has only been observed in East Africa with the most appreciable levels seen in Ethiopia (4-17%). Kenya and Somalia also harbor a moderate frequency (5%) of this subclade.

E1b1c. M329
The E1b1c (M329) subclade was only observed in Ethiopia and Qatar at a minor frequency (1-3%).

E1b2. P75
Currently, no information is available for the distribution and frequency of this Haplogroup E subclade.

E2. M75
The E2 (M75) subclade is generally limited to the Central West and South African regions. Peak levels appear in Burkina Faso (11%) and it is associated with the Bantu population. The Bantu population is responsible for a significant dispersal of agriculture practices in Africa and has likely contributed to Pygmy and Khoisan-speaking populations in many parts of Africa. E2/M75 has therefore had a role, minor in comparison to E1, in demic diffusions and admixture in several populations in this continent.

E2a. M41
The E2a (M41) subclade can be found in East Africa in the region delimited by Ethiopia, Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda. The highest levels have been reported in the Democratic Republic of Congo (~50%), while much lower levels (2-17%) are reported in the other aforementioned countries.

E2b. M54
The E2b (M54) subclade is widely distributed at low levels (2-6%). Present day countries with E2b/M54 populations include Mali, Benin, Rwanda, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Namibia. One study has found an increased frequency in some South African populations (Zulu and Xhosa 21-28%). A small fraction of these chromosomes have been detected in the Middle East: Oman (2%) and Qatar (3%). Approximately 3% of African American men carry this subclade.

E2b1. M85
The E2b1 (M85) subclade has been detected at high levels in Burkina Faso (Rimaibe 27%) and Cameroon (Daba 22%). Lower levels are present in South Africa (!Kung and Khoe ~5%). The connection between Cameroon and South Africa is reminiscent of the Bantu diaspora. The E2b1/M85 subclade has not been studied extensively and little other information is available regarding its frequency and distribution.

E2b1a. M200
Currently, the only reported population with the E2b1 (M200) subclade is the Mbuti Pygmies in the Democratic Republic of Congo (25%).

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